General Commands Manual: dpkg-buildpackage

General Commands Manual: dpkg-buildpackage


       dpkg-buildpackage - build binary or source packages from sources


       dpkg-buildpackage [option...]


       dpkg-buildpackage is a program that automates the process of building a
       Debian package. It consists of the following steps:

       1. It prepares the build environment  by  setting  various  environment
          variables  (see  ENVIRONMENT)  and  calls dpkg-source --before-build
          (unless -T or --target has been used).

       2. It  checks  that  the  build-dependencies  and  build-conflicts  are
          satisfied (unless -d is specified).

       3. If  a  specific  target  has  been  selected with the -T or --target
          option, it calls that target and  stops  here.  Otherwise  it  calls
          fakeroot  debian/rules  clean to clean the build-tree (unless -nc is

       4. It calls dpkg-source -b to generate the  source  package  (unless  a
          binary-only build has been requested with -b, -B or -A).

       5. It calls debian/rules build-target followed by fakeroot debian/rules
          binary-target (unless a source-only build has  been  requested  with
          -S).  Note  that build-target and binary-target are either build and
          binary (default case, or if -b  is  specified),  or  build-arch  and
          binary-arch  (if  -B  is specified), or build-indep and binary-indep
          (if -A is specified).

       6. It calls  gpg  to  sign  the  .dsc  file  (if  any,  unless  -us  is

       7. It   calls  dpkg-genchanges  to  generate  a  .changes  file.   Many
          dpkg-buildpackage options are forwarded to dpkg-genchanges.

       8. It calls gpg to sign the .changes file (unless -uc is specified).

       9. If -tc is specified, it will call fakeroot debian/rules clean again.
          Finally it calls dpkg-source --after-build.


       -b     Specifies  a  binary-only build, no source files are to be built
              and/or distributed. Passed to dpkg-genchanges.

       -B     Specifies a binary-only build, limited to architecture dependent
              packages.  Passed to dpkg-genchanges.

       -A     Specifies   a   binary-only   build,   limited  to  architecture
              independent packages. Passed to dpkg-genchanges.

       -S     Specifies a source-only build, no binary  packages  need  to  be
              made.  Passed to dpkg-genchanges.

       -F     Specifies  a  normal full build, binary and source packages will
              be built.  This is the same as the default case  when  no  build
              option is specified.

       --target target
              Calls   debian/rules   target   after  having  setup  the  build
              environment  and  stops  the  package  build  process  here.  If
              --as-root  is  also  given, then the command is executed as root
              (see -r). Note that official targets that are required to be run
              as root by the Debian policy do not need this option.

              Only meaningful together with --target. Requires that the target
              be run with root rights.

              Passed unchanged to dpkg-genchanges. See its manual page.

              Specify the Debian architecture we build for.  The  architecture
              of  the  machine we build on is determined automatically, and is
              also the default for the host machine.

              Specify the GNU system type we build for.  It  can  be  used  in
              place  of  -a  or  as  a  complement to override the default GNU
              system type of the target Debian architecture.

       -jjobs Number of jobs allowed to be run simultaneously,  equivalent  to
              the  make(1)  option  of  the  same name. Will add itself to the
              MAKEFLAGS  environment  variable,   which   should   cause   all
              subsequent  make  invocations  to  inherit the option. Also adds
              parallel=jobs  to  the  DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS  environment  variable
              which  allows  debian/rules  files  to  use this information for
              their own  purposes.   The  parallel=jobs  in  DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS
              environment  variable  will override the -j value if this option
              is given.

       -D     Check build dependencies and conflicts;  abort  if  unsatisfied.
              This is the default behavior.

       -d     Do not check build dependencies and conflicts.

       -nc    Do  not  clean  the  source tree (implies -b if nothing else has
              been selected among -B, -A or -S).

       -tc    Clean the  source  tree  (using  gain-root-command  debian/rules
              clean) after the package has been built.

              When  dpkg-buildpackage  needs  to  execute  part  of  the build
              process as root, it prefixes the command it executes with  gain-
              root-command  if  one has been specified. Otherwise, if none has
              been specified, fakeroot will be used by default, if the command
              is  present.   gain-root-command should start with the name of a
              program on the PATH and will get as arguments the  name  of  the
              real  command  to  run  and the arguments it should take.  gain-
              root-command  can  include  parameters  (they  must  be   space-
              separated) but no shell metacharacters.  gain-root-command might
              typically be  fakeroot,  sudo,  super  or  really.   su  is  not
              suitable,  since  it  can  only  invoke the user's shell with -c
              instead of passing arguments individually to the command  to  be

              Building a Debian package usually involves invoking debian/rules
              as a command with several standard parameters. With this  option
              it's  possible  to  use  another program invocation to build the
              package   (it   can   include   space   separated   parameters).
              Alternatively  it can be used to execute the standard rules file
              with   another   make   program   (for    example    by    using
              /usr/local/bin/make -f debian/rules as rules-file).

              When  dpkg-buildpackage  needs  to  execute GPG to sign a source
              control (.dsc) file or a .changes file it will run  sign-command
              (searching  the  PATH if necessary) instead of gpg. sign-command
              will get all the arguments that gpg  would  have  gotten.  sign-
              command   should   not   contain   spaces  or  any  other  shell

              Specify a key-ID to use when signing packages.

       -us    Do not sign the source package.

       -uc    Do not sign the .changes file.

       -z, -Z
              Passed unchanged to dpkg-source. See its manual page.

              Pass option opt to dpkg-source.

              Pass option opt to dpkg-genchanges.

       --admindir dir
              Change the location of the dpkg database. The  default  location
              is /var/lib/dpkg.

       -?, --help
              Show the usage message and exit.

              Show the version and exit.


       Even  if  dpkg-buildpackage exports some variables, debian/rules should
       not rely on their  presence  and  should  instead  use  the  respective
       interface to retrieve the needed values.

   Variables set by dpkg-architecture
       dpkg-architecture  is  called  with the -a and -t parameters forwarded.
       Any variable that is output by its -s option is integrated in the build

   Compiler flags are no longer exported
       Between   versions   1.14.17  and  1.16.1,  dpkg-buildpackage  exported
       compiler flags (CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS, FFLAGS, CPPFLAGS  and  LDFLAGS)  with
       values as returned by dpkg-buildflags. This is no longer the case.


       dpkg-buildpackage is using the build-arch and build-indep targets since
       version  1.16.2.  Those  targets  are  thus  mandatory.  But  to  avoid
       breakages  of  existing  packages,  and  ease  the  transition, it will
       fallback to using the build target if make -f debian/rules  -qn  build-
       target returns 2 as exit code.


       It should be possible to specify spaces and shell metacharacters in and
       initial arguments for gain-root-command and sign-command.


       dpkg-source(1),        dpkg-architecture(1),        dpkg-buildflags(1),
       dpkg-genchanges(1), fakeroot(1), gpg(1).

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