General Commands Manual: dpkg-buildpackage
dpkg-buildpackage - build binary or source packages from sources
dpkg-buildpackage is a program that automates the process of building a
Debian package. It consists of the following steps:
1. It prepares the build environment by setting various environment
variables (see ENVIRONMENT) and calls dpkg-source --before-build
(unless -T or --target has been used).
2. It checks that the build-dependencies and build-conflicts are
satisfied (unless -d is specified).
3. If a specific target has been selected with the -T or --target
option, it calls that target and stops here. Otherwise it calls
fakeroot debian/rules clean to clean the build-tree (unless -nc is
4. It calls dpkg-source -b to generate the source package (unless a
binary-only build has been requested with -b, -B or -A).
5. It calls debian/rules build-target followed by fakeroot debian/rules
binary-target (unless a source-only build has been requested with
-S). Note that build-target and binary-target are either build and
binary (default case, or if -b is specified), or build-arch and
binary-arch (if -B is specified), or build-indep and binary-indep
(if -A is specified).
6. It calls gpg to sign the .dsc file (if any, unless -us is
7. It calls dpkg-genchanges to generate a .changes file. Many
dpkg-buildpackage options are forwarded to dpkg-genchanges.
8. It calls gpg to sign the .changes file (unless -uc is specified).
9. If -tc is specified, it will call fakeroot debian/rules clean again.
Finally it calls dpkg-source --after-build.
-b Specifies a binary-only build, no source files are to be built
and/or distributed. Passed to dpkg-genchanges.
-B Specifies a binary-only build, limited to architecture dependent
packages. Passed to dpkg-genchanges.
-A Specifies a binary-only build, limited to architecture
independent packages. Passed to dpkg-genchanges.
-S Specifies a source-only build, no binary packages need to be
made. Passed to dpkg-genchanges.
-F Specifies a normal full build, binary and source packages will
be built. This is the same as the default case when no build
option is specified.
Calls debian/rules target after having setup the build
environment and stops the package build process here. If
--as-root is also given, then the command is executed as root
(see -r). Note that official targets that are required to be run
as root by the Debian policy do not need this option.
Only meaningful together with --target. Requires that the target
be run with root rights.
Passed unchanged to dpkg-genchanges. See its manual page.
Specify the Debian architecture we build for. The architecture
of the machine we build on is determined automatically, and is
also the default for the host machine.
Specify the GNU system type we build for. It can be used in
place of -a or as a complement to override the default GNU
system type of the target Debian architecture.
-jjobs Number of jobs allowed to be run simultaneously, equivalent to
the make(1) option of the same name. Will add itself to the
MAKEFLAGS environment variable, which should cause all
subsequent make invocations to inherit the option. Also adds
parallel=jobs to the DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS environment variable
which allows debian/rules files to use this information for
their own purposes. The parallel=jobs in DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS
environment variable will override the -j value if this option
-D Check build dependencies and conflicts; abort if unsatisfied.
This is the default behavior.
-d Do not check build dependencies and conflicts.
-nc Do not clean the source tree (implies -b if nothing else has
been selected among -B, -A or -S).
-tc Clean the source tree (using gain-root-command debian/rules
clean) after the package has been built.
When dpkg-buildpackage needs to execute part of the build
process as root, it prefixes the command it executes with gain-
root-command if one has been specified. Otherwise, if none has
been specified, fakeroot will be used by default, if the command
is present. gain-root-command should start with the name of a
program on the PATH and will get as arguments the name of the
real command to run and the arguments it should take. gain-
root-command can include parameters (they must be space-
separated) but no shell metacharacters. gain-root-command might
typically be fakeroot, sudo, super or really. su is not
suitable, since it can only invoke the user's shell with -c
instead of passing arguments individually to the command to be
Building a Debian package usually involves invoking debian/rules
as a command with several standard parameters. With this option
it's possible to use another program invocation to build the
package (it can include space separated parameters).
Alternatively it can be used to execute the standard rules file
with another make program (for example by using
/usr/local/bin/make -f debian/rules as rules-file).
When dpkg-buildpackage needs to execute GPG to sign a source
control (.dsc) file or a .changes file it will run sign-command
(searching the PATH if necessary) instead of gpg. sign-command
will get all the arguments that gpg would have gotten. sign-
command should not contain spaces or any other shell
Specify a key-ID to use when signing packages.
-us Do not sign the source package.
-uc Do not sign the .changes file.
Passed unchanged to dpkg-source. See its manual page.
Pass option opt to dpkg-source.
Pass option opt to dpkg-genchanges.
Change the location of the dpkg database. The default location
Show the usage message and exit.
Show the version and exit.
Even if dpkg-buildpackage exports some variables, debian/rules should
not rely on their presence and should instead use the respective
interface to retrieve the needed values.
Variables set by dpkg-architecture
dpkg-architecture is called with the -a and -t parameters forwarded.
Any variable that is output by its -s option is integrated in the build
Compiler flags are no longer exported
Between versions 1.14.17 and 1.16.1, dpkg-buildpackage exported
compiler flags (CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS, FFLAGS, CPPFLAGS and LDFLAGS) with
values as returned by dpkg-buildflags. This is no longer the case.
dpkg-buildpackage is using the build-arch and build-indep targets since
version 1.16.2. Those targets are thus mandatory. But to avoid
breakages of existing packages, and ease the transition, it will
fallback to using the build target if make -f debian/rules -qn build-
target returns 2 as exit code.
It should be possible to specify spaces and shell metacharacters in and
initial arguments for gain-root-command and sign-command.
dpkg-source(1), dpkg-architecture(1), dpkg-buildflags(1),
dpkg-genchanges(1), fakeroot(1), gpg(1).